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Wilkinson Coutts & Matthews Integrity Training

Who are we?

WILKINSON COUTTS / MATTHEWS INTEGRITY HUB: an up-to-the-minute information mix designed to help you with your lifework and career development in the asset integrity, inspection and NDE industries.

Matthew Petroleum Notes


This is our MASTERCLASS QUIZ: It’s a test of your knowledge of Integrity Code and technical knowledge across several levels and type of equipment. To match its MASTERCLASS designation you can’t expect it to be easy; in fact it is purposely designed to be tough. If you want to compete with your peers in the integrity industry, and see how good you really are, then just follow the instructions below.


Unlike the shorter technical quizzes on our Technical Quizpage for the MASTERCLASS we don’t give you the answers up front. You complete the quiz and then email your answer sheet to

There are 15 questions in Part A and 5 questions in Part B. Each question has only one correct answer. You can take as long as you want for the quiz but you are only allowed one attempt. Once we receive it we will mark your answers and contact you with your result. We are happy to discuss the technical aspects of the questions with you if you have a genuine interest. 

With your agreement we will also let you know where you stand on the MASTERCLASS Leader Board. This will be shown on our website and updated regularly. It’s not a formal competition and there are no prizes in the T&Cs but it’s a useful way to check your technical knowledge. If you can get the questions all correct it’s an achievement you can be proud of; the questions are on varied subjects and not easy.

We look forward to receiving your entry for the MATTHEWS INTEGRITY MASTERCLASS. Here’s the email address again:


Tick only one answer on the answer sheet:


 Qu A1. We’ll start with material properties

Which of these is true?

a) Brittleness protects against fatigue
b) Malleability is the ability to stretch without rupture
c) Ductility results in toughness
d) Ductility results in brittleness

Qu A2. One of the important principles of API 510 Inspection of vessels

Look at this short extract from API 510.The owner/user should implement and maintain an effective program for creating, establishing and monitoring integrity operating windows. IOWs are implemented to avoid process parameter exceedances that may have an ………. impact on pressure equipment integrity.

The term missed out from this verbatim code passage is:

a) Anticipated
b) Unanticipated
c) Significant
d) Established

Qu A3 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) of an ASME vessel

Here’s another extract from API 510

MAWP is the calculated maximum gauge pressure permitted at the top of a pressure vessel in its operating position for a designated temperature. This pressure is based on calculations using the minimum ………… thickness for all critical vessel elements, (exclusive of thickness designated for corrosion) and adjusted for applicable static head pressure and non-pressure loads (e.g. wind, earthquake, etc.). The MAWP may refer to either the original design or a rerated MAWP obtained through a FFS assessment.

The term missed out from this verbatim code passage is:

a) or greatest
b) or average pitted
c) code-specified
d) (-10% margin)

Qu A4. Let’s move to the inspection of overland pipelines to API 1169

Regarding project planning activities relating to API 1169 pipeline construction, pipeline inspectors should;

a) Mutually plan upcoming tasks with the Contractor
b) Be familiar with planning software
c) Only get involved in QA/QC planning activities
d) Not get involved, it is not the pipeline inspector’s job

Qu A5 Now consider the design of pipelines to ASME B31.4

When specifying B31.4 pipelines, thicker wall pipe than usual may be specified for;

a) Road/railway crossings
b) Overhead crossings
c) Trenched water crossings
d) All of the above

Qu A6. Pipelines are welded to API 1104 .How is your knowledge of terminology?

An arc welding process for pipelines that is semi-automatic is one in which;

a) Parameters and torch guidance are controlled mechanically or electronically but may be manually varied during welding to maintain the specified welding conditions
b) The operator is only involved in guiding or tracking the progression of the weld
c) The advance of the welding is manually controlled with the filler metal feed controlled automatically
d) The pipe or assembly is not rotating while the weld is being deposited

Qu A7. API 1104 weld defect acceptance criteria

When assessing a pipeline weld to API 1104, a subsurface imperfection between the first inside (root) weld pass and the first outside weld pass caused by inadequate penetration of the vertical land faces is referred to as;

a) IP
b) IPD
c) IF
d) ICP

Qu A8. API RP 1110 pipeline pressure testing definitions

Pipelines use slightly different types of pressure test definitions than piping, vessels or tanks. An API RP 1110 pressure test performed at a pressure ratio of less than 1.25 for a minimum duration of 2 hours is a;

a) Leak test
b) Spike test
c) Strength test
d) Operating test

Qu A9. How is your knowledge of ISO 9000 definitions?

In ISO 9000 definitions, the intentions and direction of an organisation, as formally expressed by its top management is a;

a) Strategy
b) Mission
c) Vision
d) Policy

Qu A10. Inspecting paint thickness

To prevent arguments when making ‘spot reading’ measurements of paint thickness standard SSPC PA-2 is commonly used. Each spot reading does not have to exceed the minimum thickness specified. The requirement is that the minimum and maximum readings of any surface spot reading shall not be?

a) Below 90% or greater than 110% of the specified values
b) Below 95% or greater than 105% of the specified values
c) Below 85% or greater than 115% of the specified values
d) Below 80% or greater than 120% of the specified values

Qu A11. Levels of responsibility of ASNT SNT-TC-1A

Document SNT-TC-1A is specified by most US pressure equipment and structural codes as the recommended standard for qualifying NDE technicians (they call them examiners).It divides them into three levels L1,L2 and L3 .A SNT-TC-1A Level 2 individual may not, independently;

a) Designate NDT technique to be used in straightforward situations
b) Interpret NDT results against high integrity codes (e.g. ASME VIII Div 2)
c) Be responsible for on-the-job training of L1 individuals
d) Set up and calibrate equipment

Qu A12. Repair and alterations of storage tanks

API post construction codes sometimes differentiate between repairs, major repairs and alterations. Which of these API 653 activities is defined as a major repair/major alteration of a storage tank? In none of these activities is the foundation of the tank disturbed

a) Installing a new NPS 10 nozzle below the liquid level
b) Jacking up the tank shell for floor repairs
c) Installing a new bottom excluding the annular ring
d) Installing a new bottom penetration near the centre of the tank

Qu A13: Thick-walled components: fitness for purpose (FFP)

Thick-walled pressure components such as flowlines, headers etc follow different design and evaluation rules to those for thin-walled vessels. FFP assessments performed on corroded thick-walled welded components (with PWHT) require consideration of which additional stresses compared to those in a thin-walled component?

a) Stress concentrations formed at notches, grooves and pits
b) Residual tensile stress in the welds
c) Secondary stresses
d) Compressive stresses

Qu A14: Design life

For design codes such as ASME VIII-I and B31.3 minimum required wall thickness are calculated using simple hoop-stress derived equations such as    Equation or    . This approach assumes?

a) An infinite design life
b) Time-dependent design life
c) Cycle-dependent design life
d) Time and cycle-dependent design life

Qu A15: SAFed Document PSG-05

The Safety Assessment Federation (SAFeD) is a UK association who publish various documents relating to the inspection of pipework systems. One of them is PSG-05 .In general; the philosophy of PSG-05 seems to be to guard against?

a) Inspecting too small a sample of piping system components
b) Applying too many temporary pipework repairs (e.g. clamps)
c) Repair of pipework that doesn’t really need it
d) Not doing enough internal inspection of pipework components



Now they get a bit more difficult (and longer to read)

Qu B1: Read about: The inspection of flanged joints

Read the following paragraphs about the inspection of flanged joints to API 510 then answer the question about it

There is a lot that can be written about the in-service inspection of flanged joints in process plant. API 510 has specific views on the subject; based on its view that flanges are a significant source of leakage, and the occasional failure. Of those flanges that do fail, the damage mechanism (DM) of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the cause of many of them.

API 510 suggests that flanged joints should be examined for evidence of leakage, such as stains, deposits, or drips. The idea behind this is that many process fluids are highly acidic or alkaline so process leaks onto flange fasteners may result in corrosion or environmental cracking (i.e. SCC).

In the real world of process plant, leaking flanges are often subject to temporary repairs by clamping, containing special clamps, with sealant pumped in under pressure. They are normally unlagged so CUI is rarely an issue. API 510 suggests that flanged joints that have been clamped and pumped with sealant should be checked for leakage at the bolts. Fasteners subjected to such leakage may corrode or crack (e.g. caustic cracking).

As most flanges leak rather than fail catastrophically into many pieces, accessible flange faces should be examined for distortion and to determine the condition of gasket-seating surfaces. Gasket-seating surfaces that are damaged and likely to result in a joint leak should be resurfaced prior to being placed back in service. Special attention should be given to flange faces in high-temperature/high-pressure services that are prone to gasket leaks during start-up and on-stream.

Outage activities on flanges are sometimes not as comprehensive as they could be, owing to priorities being reallocated onto higher profile items such as pressure vessels and protective devices. Flanges in high-pressure and/or high-temperatures services that have been boxed in or leaked on-stream during the previous operating run should receive special attention during inspection and maintenance outages to determine what corrective action is appropriate to avoid further leaks. If left as they are, then re-repair or further temporary measures are likely to result in greater risks. Sometimes everyone forgets about them until there is a failure when there is then a great panic in discussing what should have been done and why it wasn’t, and whose fault it was.

Qu B1   It’s about leaks

Why would you say is the main reason that flanges used on high temperature plant usually start to leak?

a) On start-up or during operation
b) Due to creep
c) Due to thermal expansions
d) Due to fatigue

Qu B2. Environmentally-accelerated cracking (EAC)

Many published documents (API RP 571 is a good example) lump together stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and other damage mechanisms (DMs) that are caused by the process environment (not the atmospheric environment outside a component) as belonging to the EAC family of DMs. Unfortunately, EAC rarely exists by itself ;there may be other DMs at play also.

Here’s a good test of your knowledge of EAC and related DMs. Have a go at these 10 true/false option questions. Decide whether you think each statement is true (T) or false (F). If you don’t know what any abbreviations mean you’ll need to look them up.

Q1. C–0.5Mo steel is more resistant to HTHA than plain carbon steel

Q2. Amine SCC is a form of acid attack found in H2S removal systems

Q3. 400 series SS are not susceptible to chloride SCC

Q4. Sensitised austenitic stainless steels are resistant to PASCC

Q5. SSC is particularly an issue with hard materials

Q6. In API’s view the most common type of EAC DM is caustic SCC

Q7. There is no ‘endurance limit’ for low-carbon steel in a corrosion-fatigue environment

Q8. LME does not usually cause cracking in a ductile material

Q9. SSC is a form of hydrogen stress cracking

Q10. Carbonate SCC always occurs well away from the HAZ in the base metal

Qu B3: Calculation of safe internal pressure in thin/thick shells

This is a calculation question. It is of no use just guessing it.The following formulae are in common use for calculating the safe internal pressure (MAWP) in thin and thick-walled cylindrical shells.

Thin shells       MAWP = 2SEt           Where d = OD

Thick shells     MAWP = S(k2-1)        Where k = OD/ID

S = Maximum allowable stress on the material as specified by the design code

Here are two shells: A and B

Shell A (thin) has OD = 100mm and ID = 92mm
Shell B (thick) has OD = 100mm and ID = 60mm

The Question is: What is the difference in the MAWP of these shells?

a) MAWP (A) = 3 x MAWP (B)
b) MAWP (A) = 4 x MAWP (B)
c) MAWP (B) = 4 x MAWP (A)
d) It depends on the allowable stress value

Qu B4: Composite wraps on leaking pipes.

Composite (e.g. GRP/FRP) wraps are in common use as a temporary fix for leaking pipes, until a permanent weld repair can be carried out. They may be designed and applied by specialist contractors, but as an inspector you need to check them to make sure they are correct. The ASME PCC-2 code is a useful document to use.

A wrap is being applied to reinforce a 6in long corroded patch on a NPS 16 steel pipe which is corroded to 0.3in thick. What is the minimum acceptable axial length of the wrap?

a) 10in
b) 12in
c) 13.74in
d) 9.87in

Qu B5. The danger of shell boiler failures

Boilers producing heating or auxiliary steam for installations that work on the ‘fire tube’ principle are known as ‘package’ or ‘shell’ boilers. There are tens of thousands of them in service. A shell boiler with a pressure of 10 barg has a 2m diameter firebox door. How much force is exerted on the door hinges and latches if the steam escapes into the firebox owing to catastrophic cracking or leakage?

a) 2.2 tonnes
b) 10.6 tonnes
c) 64.5 tonnes
d) 321.5 tonnes